Rice Production in India

Rice is one of the chief grains of India and it has the largest area under rice cultivation. India is the world’s second-largest producer of rice and the largest exporter of rice in the world. In 2020, world production of paddy rice was 756.7 million metric tons (834.1 million short tons), led by China and India with a combined 52% of this total. India’s Rice Production increased from 53.6 million tons in FY 1980 to 130 million tons in FY 2021-22. Rice yield per hectare in 2021-22 is 2809 kg/hectare.

India is the leading exporter of Basmati Rice to the global market. In the financial year 2018-19, India exported around 4.4 million metric tons of Basmati rice worth USD 4.7 billion.

The rice growing areas in the country can be broadly grouped into five regions as given below:

1. North-Eastern Region: This region comprises of Assam and North eastern states. In Assam rice is grown in the Basin of Brahmaputra River. This region receives very heavy rainfall and rice is grown under rain fed condition.

2. Eastern Region: It region comprises of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In this region rice is grown in the basins of Ganga and Mahanadi rivers and has the highest intensity of rice cultivation in the country. This region receives heavy rainfall and rice is grown mainly under rainfed conditions.

3. Northern Region: This region comprises of Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The region experiences low winter temperature and single crop of rice from May-July to September December is grown

4. Western Region: This region comprises of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Rice is largely grown under rainfed condition during June-August to October – December.

5. Southern Region: This region comprises of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Rice is mainly grown in deltaic tracts of Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers and the non-Delta rained area of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Rice is grown under irrigated condition in Delta tracts

Sourcehttps://www.nfsm.gov.in/

Statewise Rice Production

Rice is grown in almost all the states in the country however the major 5 states in rice production are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh produce 30% of the total quantity of rice produced in the country.

The state with the Largest area under rice cultivation are Uttar Pradesh (5737.0 thousand hectares), West Bengal (5491.0 thousand ha), Odisha (3940.7 thousand ha), Chhattisgarh (3666.0 thousand ha), and Punjab ( 2920.0 thousand ha)

Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and 

Let’s have a look at the States by Area under Rice Cultivation and Rice Production

 
#State/Union TerritoryArea under Cultivation 2019-20 
(Thousand Hectares)
Rice Production 2021-22
(Thousand tonnes)
1Uttar Pradesh5491.016762.7
2West Bengal5737.015273.4
3Punjab2920.012885
4Telangana2011.012302.2
5Odisha3940.79136
6Tamil Nadu1907.48067.3
7Chhattisgarh3666.07897.7
8Andhra Pradesh2300.17789.2
9Bihar2886.47064.1
10Assam2290.55268
11Madhya Pradesh2016.04814.9
12Haryana1447.04618
13Karnataka1185.04333.4
14Maharashtra1553.03631.5
15Jharkhand1357.72927.6
16Gujarat904.42115.4
17Tripura267.3803.1
18Uttarakhand247.0710.7
19Kerala198.2630
20Manipur*175.6602.2
21Jammu and Kashmir*280.5581.5
22Rajasthan219.5478.6
23Nagaland*217.0367.4
24Meghalaya*111.0295.8
25Arunachal Pradesh*133.5247.1
26Himachal Pradesh72.6140.5
27Goa*34.787.3
28Mizoram*35.262.2
29Sikkim8.716.2
30Puducherry18.2 
31NCT of Delhi*5.8 
 ALL INDIA43638.1130290.6

*figures from previous year

Source: https://www.nfsm.gov.in/ and RBI Statistic 

State-wise estimates of Yield

Punjab is the state with the highest yield of rice per hectare. With 4366 kg per hectare, it’s number one, followed by Andhra Pradesh (3393 kg/ha), Tamil Nadu (3379 kg/ha.), Haryana (3334 kg/ha) and Telangana (3206 kg/ha) 

Let’s have a look at the States by Etsimates of Yeild

#State/Union Territory

Kg. Per Hectare (2020-21)

1Punjab4366
2Andhra Pradesh3393
3Tamil Nadu3379
4Haryana3334
5Telangana3206
6NCT of Delhi3200
7Kerala3091
8Karnataka3072
9Tripura3045
10West Bengal2958
11Uttarakhand2814
12Puducherry2756
13Meghalaya2750
14Rajasthan2739
15Uttar Pradesh2733
16Goa2673
17Manipur2667
18Gujarat2367
19Bihar2233
20Assam2209
21Odisha2182
22Jammu & Kashmir2173
23Maharashtra2109
24Madhya Pradesh2085
25Himachal Pradesh2052
26Jharkhand1951
27Chhattisgarh1889
28Sikkim1861
29Arunachal Pradesh1847
30Mizoram1764
31Nagaland1679
ALL INDIA2717

Source:  RBI Statistic 

Indian States by Rice production 2024 | Rice Cultivation in India