Top Indian States by Wheat Production
Wheat is one of the chief grains of India and it has the second largest area under wheat cultivation. India is the world’s second-largest producer of wheat and the 10th largest exporter of wheat in the world.
In 2020, World wheat production was 761 million tonnes, led by China, India, and Russia collectively providing 38% of the world total. India’s wheat production increased from 36 million tons in FY 1980 to 107 million tons in FY 2021-22. Wheat yield per hectare in 2021-22 is 3177 kg/hectare.
Wheat is grown only in the rabi season (winter). It is planted in late November through the end of January and harvested in April. Wheat cultivation in India has traditionally been dominated by the northern region of India. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana Plains in India have been prolific wheat producers. Major wheat-growing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Gujarat.
India Wheat Growing Zones
The entire wheat-growing areas of the country have been categorized into 6 major zones as follows
1. Northern Hill Zone (NHZ): Hilly areas of J&K (except Jammu, Kathua, and Samba districts), Himachal Pradesh (except Una & Paonta valley), Uttarakhand (excluding Tarai region) & Sikkim (Total Area 0.8 million ha)
2. North Western Plains Zone (NWPZ): Punjab, Haryana, Western UP (except Jhansi Div), Rajasthan (excluding Kota & Udaipur div), Delhi, Tarai region of Uttarakhand, Una & Paonta valley of HP, Jammu, Samba & Kathua districts of J&K and Chandigarh. (Total Area 11.55 million ha)
3. North Eastern Plains Zone (NEPZ): Eastern UP(28 dist), Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, and other NE states (except Sikkim) (Total Area 10.5 million ha)
4. Central Zone: MP, Gujarat, Chattisgarh, Kota & Udaipur Div of Rajasthan & Jhansi Div of UP. (Total Area 5.2 million ha)
5. Peninsular Zone: Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (except Nilgiris & Palani Hills), Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh (Total Area 1.6 million ha)
6. Southern Hill Zone(SHZ): Nilgiris & Palani Hills of Tamil Nadu (Total Area 0.1 million ha)
The main varieties of wheat grown in India are as follows VL-832,VL-804, HS-365, HS-240 , HD2687, WH-147, WH-542, PBW-343, WH-896(d), PDW-233(d), UP-2338, PBW-502, Shresth (HD 2687), Aditya (HD 2781), HW-2044, HW-1085, NP-200(di), HW-741.
Source: RBI statistics
Statewise Wheat Production
Wheat is grown in almost all the states in the country however the major 5 states in wheat production are Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh produce 50% of the total quantity of Wheat produced in the country.
The state with the Largest area under wheat cultivation are Uttar Pradesh (9853 thousand hectares), Madhya Pradesh (6551 thousand ha), Punjab (3521 thousand ha), Rajsthan (3118 thousand ha), and Haryana (2534 thousand ha)
Let’s have a look at the States by Area under Wheat Cultivation and Wheat Production
|#||State / Union Territory||Area under Cultivation 2019-20 |
|Wheat Production 2021-22|
|13||Jammu & Kashmir||243.9||489.3|
|16||NCT Delhi & UTs||19.2||93.3|
Source: RBI Statistic