Top Indian states by Pulses Production
Pulses are an important commodity group of crops that provide high quality protein complementing cereal proteins for pre-dominantly substantial vegetarian population of the country. Pulses account for around 20 per cent of the area under food grains and contribute around 7-10 per cent of the total food grains production in the country.
India is the largest producer, consumer and importer of pulses in the world. India produces 25% of the global Pulses production. It consume 27% of the total world consumption of Pulses and also largest importer (14%) of pulses in the world.
The area under pulses has increased from 19 million ha. in 1950-51 to 28 million ha. in 2020-21, whereas the production of pulses during the same period has increased from 8.41 million ha. to 24 million ha. an increase of over 200 per cent. Pulse yield per hectare in 2021-22 is 823 kg/hectare.
Gram is the most dominant pulse having a share of around 40 per cent in the total production followed by Tur/Arhar at 15 to 20 per cent and Urad/Black Matpe and Moong at around 8-10 per cent each. Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka are the top five pulses producing States.
Pulse Growing Regions
Though pulses are grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons, Rabi pulses contribute more than 60 per cent of the total production. The three crop seasons for the commodity are:
i. Kharif – Arhar (Tur), Urd (Blackgram), Moong (Greengram), Lobia (Cowpea), Kulthi (Horsegram) and Moth;
ii. Rabi – Gram, Lentil, Pea, Lathyrus and Rajmash
iii. Summer – Greengram, Blackgram and Cowpea
There was 280 lakh ha area in India at triennium ending 2020-21, which was mainly contributed by Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Other states with significant area are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
Source: rbi statistics
Statewise Pulses Production
Pulses are grown in almost all the states in the country however the major 5 states in wheat production are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka. These Top five states produces almost 50% of total quantity of Pulses produced in the country.
The state with Largest area under Pulses cultivation is Rajasthan (6340 thousand hectares), Madhya Pradesh (4757 thousand ha), Maharashtra (4192 thousand ha), Karnatka ( 3111 thousand ha) and Uttar Pradesh ( 2370 thousand ha)
Let’s have a look at the States by Area under Pulses Cultivation and Pulses Production
|#||State/Union Territory||Area under Cultivation 2019-20 |
|Pulse Production 2021-22|
|20||Jammu and Kashmir||17.3||44.2|
|31||NCT of Delhi||–||0.0|
Source: RBI Statistic
Pulses Name in Hindi
|English Name||Hindi Name|
|Green Gram Split||मूंग हरी दाल|
|Moong yellow Dal/ Skinned Dal||मूंग पीली दाल|
|Green Gram/Whole Mung Beans/ Turkish gram||मोठ दाल/साबित मूंग|
|Red Lentil||मसूर की दाल|
|Whole Red Lentil||मलका की दाल/मलका मसूर|
|Black Gram /Vigna mungo||उड़द|
|Black Gram Split||उड़द की दाल/ काली दाल|
|Urad Dal White Lentil /Urad Dal skinned||उड़द की धुली दाल|
|Black-Eyed Pea/Black eyed Beans/Alubia/Cowpea||लोबिया/ सफ़ेद राजमा|
|Kidney Beans, Beans||राजमा|
|Green Peas||हरी मटर|
|Gram/ Bengal Gram/ Chickpeas Split||चना दाल|
|Gram / Chickpeas whole||काला चना|
|Lima Beans/Vaal Dal||सेम|
|Gahat ki Daal-Horse Gram||कुल्थी दाल|
|Red Gram/Pigeon pea||अरहर की दाल/तुअर दाल|
|Dal Bhat||भट्ट की दाल|
Chickpea/ Bengalgram/ Chana
Chickpea/ Bengalgram/ Chana is most important pulse crop of India contributing about 30 % of total pulse acreage and about 40 % of total pulse production of the nation. It is mainly consumed as ‘Dal’ (split cotyledons) and chhole. Many attractive dishes viz – sweets, snacks and namkeen are also prepared from its floor called besan. Also eaten as whole fried or boiled and salted.
In 2020, world production of chickpeas was 15 million tonnes, led by India with 73% of the global total, and Turkey, Myanmar, and Pakistan as secondary producers. . The total area and production of gram during twelfth Plan was 88.80 lakh hectares and 110 lakh tonnes respectively.
Top States by Chickpea Production
|Sr No.||State||Production (thousand tonnes)||Share(%)|
Pigeopea /Arhar/ Tur
Pigeonpea (Arhar) commonly known as red gram or tur is a very old crop of this country. After gram, arhar is the second most important pulse crop in the country. It accounts for about 11.8% of the total pulse area and 17% of total pulse production of the country.
It is mainly eaten in the form of split pulse as ‘dal’: Seeds of arhar are also rich in iron, iodine, essential amino acids like lycine, tyrocene, cystine and arginine.
World production of pigeon peas is estimated at 4.49 million tons. About 63% of this production comes from India. The total number of hectares grown to pigeon pea is estimated at 5.4 million. India accounts for 72% of the area grown to pigeon pea or 3.9 million hectares. Africa is the secondary centre of diversity and at present it contributes about 21% of global production with 1.05 million tons. Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique and Uganda are the major producers in Africa.
The country’s total area coverage and production of tur were 38.35 lakh hectares and 39 lakh tonnes respectively.
Top States in Pigeonpea /Arhar Production
|Sr No.||State||Production (thousand tonnes)||Share(%)|
|21||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||1.40||0.04|
Green Gram / Moong
Green gram is an excellent source of high quality protein with easy digestibility, consumed as whole grains, dal and sprouted in variety of ways. As value addition, splitand dehusked, fried in fat, fetch good value as snacks. After harvesting the pods, green plants are fed to the cattle. The husk of the seed also used as cattle feed.
The total area covered under moong in India was 30.41 lakh hectares with a total production of 14.24 lakh tonnes.
Top States in Green gram / Moong production
- Rajasthan – 26%
- Maharashtra – 12%
- Odisha – 12%
- Andhra Pradesh – 9%
- Karnataka – 7%
- Madhya Pradesh – 7%
- Tamilnadu – 7 %
- Bihar – 5%
- Gujarat – 4%
- Uttar Pradesh – 3%
- Jharkhand – 1 %
- Other States – 7%
The highest yield was recorded by the state of Punjab (838 kg/ha) followed by Jharkhand (680 kg/ha) and Tamil nadu (675 kg/ha). The National yield average was 468 kg/ha.
Blackgram / Urd
Black gram is one of the important pulse crops grown throughout India. It is consumed in the form of ‘dal’ (whole or split, husked and un-husked) or perched. Urd differs from other pulses in its peculiarity of attaining a mucilaginous pasty character when soaked in water, In the south, It is consumed in variety of ways across the form north to south in preparation of different regular and popular dishes like vada, idli, dosa, halwa, imarti in combination with other foodgrains. Also used as a nutritive fodder for milch cattle.
The total production was 18.29 lakh tonnes on an area of 31.29 lakh hectares.
Top States in Blackgram / Urd Productions
- Uttar Pradesh – 17%
- Andhra Pradesh – 17%
- Madhya Pradesh – 15%
- Tamil Nadu – 12%
- Maharashtra – 9%
- Rajasthan – 6%
- Jharkhand – 5%
- Gujarat – 3%
- Karnataka – 3%
- Chhattisgarh – 2%
- Orissa – 1%
- Other States – 10%
The highest yield was recorded by the state of Bihar (898 kg/ha) followed by Sikkim (895 kg/ha) and Jharkhand (890 kg/ha) the National yield average was (585 kg/ha).
Lentil / Masur
Lentil/ Mashur / Malka is a valuable human food, mostly consumed as dry seeds (whole decorticated, seed decorticated and split). In Indian sub continent it is mostly consumed as ‘Dal’ by removal of outer skin and separation of cotyledons, snacks and soup preparation etc.
In 2020, global production of lentils was 6.5 million tonnes, led by Canada with 45% and India with 18% of the world total (table). Saskatchewan is the most productive growing region in Canada, producing 95% of the national total. In India, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are largest producers, together producing more than 70% of the total. Other major producers include West Bengal and Bihar.
Production (thousand tones)
|18||Jammu & Kashmir||0.27||0.02|