Indian States by Fertility Rate | Birth Rate

Indian States by Fertility Rate & Birth Rate

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR)*  for India as per the census 2011 was 2.4 per woman.  As per recent studies & surveys, the majority of Indian state’s fertility rate has fallen well below the replacement level of 2.1 and the country is fast approaching the replacement level itself. 

The total fertility rate of India stands at 2.2 as of 2017. In rural areas of India, the Fertility rate is 2.1 & In Urban areas of India, it’s 1.9.  Among the bigger States, it varies from 1.7 in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal to 3.6 in Bihar.

The Crude birth rate (CBR)** for India as per census 2011 was 21.8. In 2016 Census studies CBR at all India level had declined from 29.5 in 1991 to 20.4 in 2016. CBR has continued to be higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the last three decades. 

The birth rate (CBR) of India at national level is 20.4 varying from 22.1 in rural to 17.0 in urban areas as of 2017.

*The cumulative value of the age-specific fertility rates at the end of the childbearing ages gives a measure of fertility known as Total Fertility Rate (TFR). TFR indicates the average number of children expected to be born per woman during her entire span of reproductive period.

**The crude birth rate is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

Total Fertility Rate State wise

The TFR for India in the year 2017 was 2.2 per woman and varies from 2.4 in rural areas to 1.7 in urban areas. Among the bigger States/UTs, it varies from 1.5 in Delhi to 3.2 in Bihar. For rural areas, it varies from 1.6 in Delhi and Tamil Nadu to 3.3 in Bihar. For urban areas, such variation is from 1.1 in Himachal Pradesh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

#Big States/UTsTotalRuralUrban
1Bihar 3.23.32.4
2Uttar Pradesh 33.22.4
3Madhya Pradesh 2.732.1
4Rajasthan 2.62.72.2
5Jharkhand 2.52.71.9
6Chhattisgarh 2.42.61.8
7Assam 2.32.41.6
 India 2.22.41.7
8Gujarat 2.22.41.8
9Haryana 2.22.41.9
10Odisha 1.921.3
11Uttarakhand 1.91.91.8
12Karnataka 1.71.81.6
13Kerala 1.71.71.7
14Maharashtra 1.71.81.5
15Telangana 1.71.71.6
16Andhra Pradesh 1.61.71.5
17Himachal Pradesh 1.61.71.1
18Jammu & Kashmir 1.61.81.2
19Punjab 1.61.71.5
20Tamil Nadu 1.61.61.6
21West Bengal 1.61.71.3
22Delhi 1.51.61.5

Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies

RankSmall States/UtsTotal Fertility rate
1Sikkim1.1
2Andaman & Nicobar1.3
3Goa1.3
4Lakshadweep1.4
5Chandigarh1.8
6Puduchery1.6
7Tripura1.7
8Daman & Diu1.7
9Ladakh1.3
10Nagaland1.7
11Dadra Nagar Haveli1.8
12Mizoram1.9
13Arunachal Pradesh2.1
14Manipur2.2
15Meghalaya2.9

Source: National Family Health Survey 2020

Top 5 States with Highest Fertility in India

The top 5 India States by Fertility rate as per 2017 Census studies are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradeesh, Rajasthan & Jharkhand. Chhatishgarh & Assam also have Fertility rate above National Level of 2.2


# States Total
1 Bihar  3.2
2 Uttar Pradesh  3
3 Madhya Pradesh  2.7
4 Rajasthan  2.6
5 Jharkhand  2.5
6 Chhattisgarh  2.4
7 Assam  2.3
  India  2.2

Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies

Top 5 States with Lowest Fertility in India

The 5 India State/Uts by Lowest Fertility rate as per 2017 Census studies are Sikkim, Manipur,  Andaman, Delhi & Kerala. Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir, Punjab, Tamil Nadu & West Bengal also has low fertility rate.

RankState/UTFertility rate 
1Sikkim1.2
2Manipur1.4
3Andaman & Nicobar1.5
4Delhi1.5
5Kerala1.6
6Andhra Pradesh 1.6
7Himachal Pradesh 1.6
8Jammu & Kashmir 1.6
9Punjab 1.6
10Tamil Nadu 1.6
11West Bengal 1.6


Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies

Indian States by Birth Rate

The crude birth rate (CBR) at all India level had declined from 29.5 in 1991 to 20.4 in 2016. CBR has continued to be higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the last three decades.

The birth rate (CBR) at national level is 20.4 varying from 22.1 in rural to 17.0 in urban areas. Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand and West Bengal are the States having birth rate below 20 both in rural and urban areas.

On the other hand, Bihar has the highest birth rate in rural areas (27.7) and Uttar Pradesh has the highest birth rate in urban areas (22.8) areas, followed by Uttar Pradesh (27.3) and Rajasthan (21.6) in rural and urban areas respectively. The lowest Birth rate (CBR) was recorded in rural areas of Kerala (14.3) and in urban areas of Himachal Pradesh (10.5).

Given below provides the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) for India and bigger States/UTs

#StateTotalRuralUrban 
1Andhra Pradesh 16.416.715.8
2Assam 21.722.815
3Bihar 26.827.721.1
4Chhattisgarh 22.824.318.1
5Delhi 15.51715.5
6Gujarat 20.12217.7
7Haryana 20.72218.3
8Himachal Pradesh 1616.510.5
9Jammu & Kashmir 15.717.411.9
10Jharkhand 22.924.518.4
11Karnataka 17.618.516.2
12Kerala 14.314.314.4
13Madhya Pradesh 25.127.119.5
14Maharashtra 15.916.315.5
15Odisha 18.619.613.7
16Punjab 14.915.614.1
17Rajasthan 24.325.221.6
18Tamil Nadu 1515.115
19Telangana 17.517.817
20Uttar Pradesh 26.227.322.8
21Uttarakhand 16.616.816
22West Bengal 15.416.911.8
23India 20.422.117

Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies

Top States with High Birth Rate in India

The top 5 India States by Crude Birth rate as per 2017 Census studies are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradeesh, Rajasthan & Jharkhand. Chhatishgarh,  Assam & Haryana also have crude birth rate above National Level of 20.4. Bihar has the highest birth rate in rural areas (27.7) and Uttar Pradesh has the highest birth rate in urban areas (22.8) areas, followed by Uttar Pradesh (27.3) and Rajasthan (21.6) in rural and urban areas respectively.

#StateTotalRuralUrban
1Bihar 26.827.721.1
2Uttar Pradesh 26.227.322.8
3Madhya Pradesh 25.127.119.5
4Rajasthan 24.325.221.6
5Jharkhand 22.924.518.4
6Chhattisgarh 22.824.318.1
7Assam 21.722.815
8Haryana 20.72218.3
9Gujarat 20.12217.7
10Odisha 18.619.613.7

Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies

Top States with Lowest Birth rate in India

The lowest Birth rate (CBR) was recorded in rural areas of Kerala (14.3) and in urban areas of Himachal Pradesh (10.5). Given below provides the Indian State/Uts by Lowest Fertility rate as per 2017 Census studies. 

#StateTotalRuralUrban
1Kerala 14.314.314.4
2Punjab 14.915.614.1
3Tamil Nadu 1515.115
4West Bengal 15.416.911.8
5Delhi 15.51715.5
6Jammu & Kashmir 15.717.411.9
7Maharashtra 15.916.315.5
8Himachal Pradesh 1616.510.5
9Andhra Pradesh 16.416.715.8
10Uttarakhand 16.616.816

Source: Based on Indian Census 2017 Studies