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Mongolia Population and religion percentage

Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Mongolia is the world’s largest landlocked country and the world’s most sparsely populated sovereign nation, much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south, As per the UN World Population Prospects report, the estimated population of  Mongolia in 2024 is 3,493,629 (3.4 million)

Mongolia 2024 Population
Total Population3,493,629
Land Area 1,553,556 sq. km (599,831 sq. mi)
Pop. Density2 people/sq. km
Capital CityUlaanbaatar
Fertility Rate*2.90
Infant mortality rate ** 14.8
Median Age 28.2 years.
Life Expectancy70.53 years
Urban Population67.2 %

*Fertility rate, average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.

**Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 live births of children under one year of age.

Religion in Mongolia

Buddhism is the majority religion in Mongolia and its society is traditionally dominated by the schools of Mongolian Buddhism and by Mongolian shamanism, the ethnic religion of the Mongols. As per the national census of 2020, 51.7% of Mongolians identify as Buddhists and 2.5% as followers of the Mongol shamanic tradition. 

Non-Christian faiths account for 5%, and the remaining 40.6% are classified as unaffiliated, which can mean agnostic, atheist, or “nothing in particular.”

Islam in Mongolia is the religion of 105,500 people as of the 2020 census, corresponding to 3.2% of the population. Christianity is practiced by 42,859 or 1.3% of the population and the remaining 0.7% are followers of other religions. 

Religion percentage in Mongolia 

ReligionPercentage
Buddhism51.70%
No religion 40.60%
Islam 3.20%
Mongolian shamanism 2.50%
Christianity 1.30%
Other 0.70%

Source: 2020 Census

Mongolia Ethnic population

The Mongols are quite homogeneous, ethnically. Within Mongolia, Khalkh (or Khalkha) Mongols constitute some four-fifths of the population. Other Mongolian groups—including Dörvöd (Dörbed), Buryat, Bayad, and Dariganga—account for nearly half of the rest of the population. Much of the remainder consists of Turkic-speaking peoples—mainly Kazakhs, some Tuvans, and a few Tsaatans (Dhukha)—who live mostly in the western part of the country. There are small numbers of Russians and Chinese, who are found mainly in the towns.

Top Cities in Mongolia by Population
#CityPopulation
1Ulaanbaatar1,340,000
2Erdenet86,866
3Darkhan74,300
4Choibalsan38,150
5Mörön36,082
6Khovd28,601
7Ölgii27,855
8Bayankhongor26,252
9Arvaikheer25,622
10Ulaangom21,406
Population of Mongolia 2024 | Religion in Mongolia